Here you can find videos, references to academic papers, and other institutions to learn about how the legal and judicial system, physical property rights, and intellectual property rights interact with the economy and the rest of society.

International Patent Index 2023

By: Rhrysa K. Kazakou (Global Fellow) & Dr. Walter G. Park (American University)

Published May 20, 2022
This week Professor Walter Park of American University and Chrysa Kazakou of PRA presented the newly published 2023 International Patent Index. The index offers a useful tool for measuring the protection of patents around the world. Read the index here!

Analysis of Flavored Vaping Products as a Harm Reduction Method

By: Rowan Saydlowski

Published May 20, 2022

This addendum report summarizes the key benefits of flavored vaping accessibility for achieving harm reduction, and the unintended dangers that can accompany well-intentioned bans of these products.


VIDEO: Vaping Works

By: Property Rights Alliance

Published November 22, 2021

Dozens of countries from all over the globe have found the same secret to decreasing smoking rates, but the big question is whether the rest of the world is honest enough to listen.


International Best Practices for Tobacco and Nicotine Public Policy

By: Adam Hoffer, Abel Benjamin Lim, Fariq Sazuki, Benedict Weerasena, and Carmelo Ferlito

Published September 13, 2021

The report focuses on case studies in East Asia and ASEAN with a focus on Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, South Korea, and Japan to illustrate how developments in tobacco quit aids lead to greater smoking cessation rates.


Vaping Works. International Best Practices: United Kingdom, New Zealand, France and Canada

By: Christopher Snowdon, Louis Houlbrooke, Patrick Coquart, and Prof. Ian Irvine

Published September 9, 2021

These case studies analyze the
policies implemented by governments on electronic cigarettes and combustible tobacco products for smoking cessation efforts in the UK, New Zealand, France and Canada.


O Impacto da COP9 sobre os Cigarros Eletrônicos

By: Christopher Snowdon

Published Summer 2021

Este documento traz à luz as contradições entre a missão de reduzir o consumo de tabaco e as recomendações apresentadas pela Conferência das Partes (COP) da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) no âmbito da Convenção-Quadro para o Controle do Tabaco (CQCT).


El Impacto de la COP9 en los Vapeadores

By: Christopher Snowdon

Published Summer 2021

Este documento saca a la luz las contradicciones entre la misión de reducir el consumo de tabaco y las recomendaciones de política presentadas por la Conferencia de las Partes (COP) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) dentro del Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT).


The Impact Of COP9 On Vapers

By: Christopher Snowdon

Published Summer 2021

This paper brings to light the contradictions between the mission to reduce tobacco consumption and the policy recommendations put forth by the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Conference of Parties (COP) within the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC).


Beleidsanalyse van de voorgestelde maatregelen in Nederland met betrekking tot “vapen”

By: Pieter Cleppe

Published May 22, 2021

In deze paper worden de maatregelen die de Nederlandse regering in het vooruitzicht gesteld heeft om “vapen” strikter aan regels te onderwerpen onder de loep genomen.


2021 International Trademark and Patent Index

By: Chrysa K. Kazakou and Prof. Walter G. Park

Published April 26, 2021

The International Trademark and Patent Index is published by Property Rights Alliance and offers a tool for measuring the protection of trademarks and patents around the world.


Patents for Invention and Foreign Direct Investment: Trends and Challenges of Intellectual and Industrial Property in Argentina

By: Pablo Iannello

Published November 29, 2018

Academic paper released at UCEMA university in Argentina by Pablo Iannello, professor of law at the University of Dayton.

Available in English and Spanish

The Disaster of Expropriation Without Compensation in Eastern Europe and Asia

By: Free Market Foundation

Published November 26, 2018

Tom Palmer provides examples of countries where property rights were dismantled, and the devastating effects of this process upon those countries.


Lessons from Venezuela on Property Expropriation

By: Free Market Foundation

Published November 22, 2018

Maria Machado and Sary Carciente, author of the International Property Rights Index discuss property expropriation by the Venezuelan government and lessons for South Africans considering similar policies

The Property Register- on 50 Things that Made the Modern Economy

By: BBC World Service

Published October 1, 2017

Host Tim Harford takes listeners through Hernando De Soto’s observation that “Property rights for the world’s poor could unlock trillions in ‘dead capital”

Producer: Ben Crighton Editors: Richard Knight and Richard Vadon

link to Podcast

Hernando De Soto on Property Rights and Rule of Law

By: Poverty Cure

Published on March 18, 2011

Hernando De Soto explains the connection between property rights, the rule of law, and poverty  “the first thing that they understand… is that everybody on this earth lives on a plot of land.”


Why is the rule of law crucial for a successful economy?

By: Robeco Asset Management

Published May 21, 2013

Hernando de Soto, Peruvian economist, talks about the importance of the rule of law in building a successful economy. What happens if the rule of law is not obeyed?


The Value of People (from the Poverty Cure)

By: Professor Gerdes and Poverty Cure

Published June 12, 2013

This clip from Poverty Cure deals with the creative value of each person.  The key is to release that enormous power. This clip is 5 minutes of a 6 video series and it is used for educational purposes in a graduate business class at Charleston Southern University


Land Property Rights: The Key to India’s Future

By: The Heritage Foundation

Published May 8, 2013

The widely touted Indian economic miracle has short-circuited. One crucial action can restart the process and maintain it for a generation: giving people more rights to their land. Barun Mitra, co-founder of a project to map and document rural land ownership, and Heritage’s Derek Scissors talk about the power of property rights and how they can advance in India.


Ronald Coase: “Markets, Firms and Property Rights”

By: The University of Chicago

Published April 20, 2012

This address by Ronald Coase (Clifton R. Musser Professor Emeritus of Economics at the University of Chicago Law School) to the conference “Markets, Firms and Property Rights: A Celebration of the Research of Ronald Coase” was recorded November 23, 2009.


Douglas North – Effect of Institutions on Market Performance at FCC

By: fccdotgovvideo and Dr. Douglas North

Published January 26, 2010

Nobel Laureate, Douglas North and author of the Economic Performance Through Time talks about how institutions, such as those that govern property rights, structure human interaction and are the key to endogenous development.

Elena Panaritis – Property Rights, Building Trust TEDxAthens

By: TEDxAThens and Elena Panaritis

Published December 23, 2010

Elena Panaritis author of Prosperity Unbound and founder of Thought for Action talks about the process and impact of building trust between the informal and formal economies, and developing Reality Check Analysis



Suggested Readings about Rule of Law, Property Rights and Intellectual Property

  • Acemoglu, D., S. Johnson, and J. A. Robinson, 2001. “The colonial origins of comparative development: an empirical investigation” American Economic Review. Vol.91(5):1369-1401.

  • Acemoglu, D., S. Johnson, and J. A. Robinson, 2002. “Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income Distribution” Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol.117(4):1231-1294.

  • Acemoglu, D., S. Johnson, and J. A. Robinson, 2005. “Institutions as a fundamental cause of long run growth” in: Aghion, P. & Durlauf, S. (eds.), Handbook of Economic Growth, Volume 1A, Chapter 6, Elsevier.

  • Alchian, A. A. and H. Demsetz, 1973. “The Property Right Paradigm” The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 33 (1-Mar): 16-27

  • Angeles, L. 2010. “Institutions and economic development: Panel Evidence” Working Paper # 2010-03, Business School-Economics, University of Glasgow.

  • Barzel, Y. 1997. Economic Analysis of Property Rights, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2nd Ed.

  • Buchanan, J.M., 1993. Property as a Guarantor of Liberty. Aldershot, Hants, England: E. Elgar.

  • David, P. and D. Foray, 2003. “Economic Fundamentals of the Knowledge Society” Policy Futures in Education, Vol. 1(1):20-49

  • De Soto, H. and F. Cheneval (eds.) 2006. Realizing Property Rights. Swiss Human Rights Book Volume 1. Zurich: Ruffer and Rub

  • De Soto, H. 2000. El misterio del capital: Por qué el capitalismo triunfa en occidente y fracasa en el resto del mundo. NY: Basic Books, London: Bantam Press/Random House, Lima: El Comercio

  • De Soto, H. 2016 Cómo los pobres del Perú derrotaron al terrorismo. the Institute for Liberty and Democracy, Lima, Peru.

  • Delong, J.M., 1997. Property Matters. New York: Free Press.

  • Demsetz, H., 1967: “Toward a theory of property rights” American Economic Review Vol. 57(2-May): 347-359.

  • Diwan, I and D. Rodrik. 1991. “Patents, Appropriate Technology, and North-South Trade,” Journal of International Economics, Vol. 30: 27-47.

  • Dong B., and B. Torgler. 2011. “Democracy, Property Rights, Income Equality, and Corruption. Nota Di Lavoro. Global Challenges Series. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.

  • Easterly, W. and Levine, R. 2003. “Tropics, germs and crops: how endowments influence economic development” Journal of Monetary Economics. Vol.50:3-39.

  • Epstein, R. 1985. Takings: Private Property and the Power of Eminent Domain. Cambridge: Harvard University Press

  • Epstein, R. 1995. Simple Rules for a Complex World. Cambridge. MA: Harvard. University Press.

  • Feyrer, J. and Sacerdote, B. 2009. “Colonialism and Modern Income: Islands as Natural Experiments,” The Review of Economics and Statistics Vol. 91(2):245-262.

  • Friedman, M., 1962. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

  • Galiani, S. and E. Schargrodsky, 2005.“”Property Rights for the Poor: Effects of Land Titling” Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Business School Working Paper # 06/2005.

  • Ghatak, M. and T. Besley, 2009. “Property Rights and Economic Development” CEPR Discussion Paper #7243

  • Glaeser, E. L., La Porta, R., Lopez de Silanes, F. and Shleifer, A., 2004. “Do Institutions cause growth?” Journal of Economic Growth Vol. 9:271-303

  • Hall, R. H. and Jones C. 1999. “Why Do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output per Worker than Others?” NBER Working Paper No. 6564. June 1999

  • Hansson, G. 2009. “What determines rule of law? An empirical investigation of rival models” Kyklos Vol.62 (3):371-393.

  • Hayek, F.A., 1960. The Constitution of Liberty. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

  • Iannello, A. Pablo, 2018. “Patentes de Invención e Inversión Extranjera Directa: Tendencias y desafíos de la propiedad intelectual e industrial en Argentina” Paper presented at UCEMA in Buenos Aires, Argentina, November, 29, 2018.  (Spanish) (English)

  • Jaffé, K.; S. Levy-Carciente; W. Zanoni 2007. “The Economic Limits of Trust: The Case of Latin-American Urban Informal Commerce Sector” Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, Vol.12(Sep-3):339-352.

  • Johnson, S., J. McMillan and C. Woodruff. 2002. “Property Rights and Finance” American Economic Review Vol. 92(5):1335-56.

  • Knack S. and Keefer, P. 1995. “Institutions and Economic Performance” Economics and Politics Vol 7 (3):207-227

  • Korenko, G. 1999. “Intellectual Property Protection and Industrial Growth,” Journal of World Intellectual Property, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 47-75.

  • Machan, T.R., 2002. The Right to Private Property. Stanford: The Hoover Institution Press.

  • Meinzen-Dick, R. 2009 Property rights for poverty reduction? Economic and Social Affairs DESA Working Paper No. 91. ST/ESA/2009/DWP/91. December

  • Meinzen-Dick, R., P. Kameri-Mbote & H. Markelova 2007, “Property Rights for Poverty Reduction” 2020 Focus Brief on the World’s Poor and Hungry People. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute

  • North, D. C. 1981, Structure and change in economic history, New York: W. W. Norton & Co.

  • North, D. C. 1990, Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Nozick, R., 1974. Anarchy, State and Utopia, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

  • Paldam, M. and E. Gundlach 2007. “Two Views on Institutions and Development: The Grand Transition vs the Primacy of Institutions” Paper presented at DEGIT XII, Melbourne, Australia, June 29-30, 2007 []

  • Pipes, R., 1999. Property and Freedom.New York: Alfred A. Knopf and London: The Harvill Press.

  • Rand, A., 1964. The Virtue of Selfishness. New York: Penguin Books

  • Rodrik, D., Subramanian, A. and Trebbi, F. 2004. “Institutions rule: the primacy of institutions over geography and integration in economic development” Journal of Economic Growth Vol. 9: 131-165

  • Sandefur, T., 2006. Cornerstone of Liberty: Property Rights in 21st century America. Washington: Cato Institute.

  • Singh, R. J. and Y. Huang. 2011. “Financial Deepening, Property Rights, and Poverty: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa” IMF Working Papers WP/11/196

  • Talbott, J. and R. Roll. 2001. “Why Many Developing Countries Just Aren’t” The Anderson School at UCLA, Finance Working Paper No. 19-01. Nov.13, 2001. []

  • Taylor, M.S. 1994. “TRIPs, Trade, and Growth” International Economic Review. Vol. 35(2):361-81.

  • Von Mises, L., 2002. Gobierno Omnipotente. En nombre del Estado. Madrid: Unión Editorial. Original title: Omnipotent Government: The Rise of the Total State and Total War (New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1944). Translation of Pedro Elgoibar.

  • Waldron, J., 2012 “Property and Ownership” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.) []

  • Wang, S-Y. 2008. “Credit Constraints, Job Mobility and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from a Property Reform in China, NYU.

  • Zhang, J., D. Du and W.G. Park. 2015. “How Private Property Protection Influences the Impact of Intellectual Property Rights on Economic Growth? Global Economic Review, Vol. 44(1):1–30, []

Intellectual Property Institutions

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)


International Indexes that utilize measures of Property Rights